Thursday, June 26, 2008

Digital Prospecting With Google Earth

For those who do paleontological prospecting in new field areas, I probably don't have to spend too much time singing the virtues of good satellite imagery. Perhaps the single best thing about it is that it can allow you to quickly evaluate where the worthwhile exposures are, and where the low-relief, grassy pastures are covering up perfectly good fossiliferous rocks. Used in concert with a geological map, this "digital prospecting" can save a lot of time and annoyance out in the field.

There are two ways to go about this. . .one is by old fashioned aerial photographs and a geology map. The other is by using Geographical Information System (GIS) software. Because I've barely touched GIS since I took a course as an undergraduate (and I am lucky enough to have a skilled friend who volunteers for the occasional map-making project; one of these days I'll get around to learning GRASS), in this post I'll focus on the "lazy researcher's GIS" -- Google Earth.

Now in version 4.3, this digital globe runs smartly in Windows, Linux, and presumably the Mac OS (although I've never tried the latter). Find a prospective field area, and do a virtual fly-over to locate promising outcrop. Mark prospective points, and transfer the coordinates to your GPS unit. It's that simple!

So what are the upsides of using Google Earth?
- It's free!
- Pretty much global coverage.
- The user interface is intuitive, without a lot of annoying extras.
- High resolution (in many areas)

And the downsides?
- An internet connection is pretty much required, if you want to go someplace that isn't already in the cache. So, don't plan on being able to use it that well in the field.
- The DEMs (digital elevation models) are pretty crude in most areas, and don't necessarily show detailed topography all that well, if you want to pan around an actual landscape.
- It's tough to import GIS data, if you want to add geological data or something (although it can be done - to be addressed in the next post). Furthermore, basic GIS functions, such as intersections of layers, just can't be done easily within the program itself (as far as I know).
- Resolution varies across the maps. Sometimes the remotest areas have crisp, true-color resolution - and the field area just around the corner is a fuzzy, false color mess.
- Township and range aren't supported by default (but see an upcoming post for a solution!).

Is Google Earth useful for paleontologists?
If you're in the early stages of a field project, or are trying to evaluate outcrop potential in a far-away locale, Google Earth is perfect. But, be aware that this program is not a complete substitute for a good GIS package (and a person to run it!) for many tasks, and satellite coverage limitations may cause problems in some regions. For the most part, though, Google Earth is a quick, cheap tool for planning out a field season (and one that I use quite frequently!).

Coming up. . .Handy tips and tricks to make the paleontologist's use of Google Earth easier.

Wednesday, June 18, 2008

JVP - Zotero Style!

In a previous post, I lamented how difficult it is to create custom style files in the program Zotero. As a brief recap, this reference manager does a fantastic job of downloading references from the web and creating citations and bibliographies in Word or Writer. But, if you want to venture beyond the default style library (which is steadily expanding with a number of add-ons), you have a little style-file writing to do.

Creating a Zotero style file is not for the faint-of-heart. These are written in an XML scripting language called "CSL" (for "Citation Style Language"). As I was writing my dissertation, I needed to format one of my chapters with the format for Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. Of course, Zotero didn't have a style available for this, and I wasn't in any mood to format everything by hand. So, I decided to invest an afternoon in learning enough CSL to be dangerous.

In actuality, I didn't learn much CSL at all. I took an existing style (American Psychological Association) and retrofit it for JVP. The APA style was close enough to start, and I had to tweak author orders, abbreviations, etc. The result is uploaded here. Caveat emptor!!! As you will find, my work is nowhere near perfect - I got the citation styles down pretty well for journals and edited volumes, and beyond that things might be a little wonky. Anyone who wishes to do their own tweaking is welcome to do so - and I would appreciate it, in fact!

Because I'm not a real code-head, I had to rely on a few "crutches" to limp through modifying the style file. First, a style preview tool, written by Dan Stillman, was invaluable. Follow the directions here in order to use that. Second, I relied on the CSL schema, which was the final authority on what various parameters meant. After that, it was tweak, test, re-tweak, and re-test, until I got something I could live with. It took a few hours of time, but was well worth it.

Good luck! Anyone else have their own style files they've written?