Yellowstone NP gets a lot of visitors, and you surely must have had some interactions with them during your fieldwork. How did they react to what you were doing?
JM: I work in areas that are generally well off trail and in places most Yellowstone visitors just don't see. Over the years, there are have been very few times when tourists actually ever saw my teams conducting our bone work. Most of the time, conversation with the public occur in the evenings back at camp. We generally use the public campgrounds for our homebases and my research will often come up in conversation with tourists. When folks learn what my teams and I are up to, they are always very interested and ask lots of questions. Our National Parks are an important resource, and I think people like to be reminded of their biological and scientific value. At the same time, I think it gives folks a way of looking at Yellowstone in a new and exciting way. I know lots of people who talk to us one day and keep an eye out for bones the next.
Miller studying bone survey data sheets on Northern Range, Yellowstone National Park. Photo by Scott Rose.
You looked at hundreds of bones during your survey. Was there any particular specimen that stuck out in your mind? What about it was interesting?
JM: I looked at over 20,000 bones during my work in Yellowstone. And you are right, there are a few that really stand out. Some of the most memorable bones are those of animals with severe bone maladies. In some individuals we found severe arthritis or broken bones that didn’t heal properly. Other memorable bones include rare and unusual species. One of the most exciting finds was the skull of a mountain lion. We just stumbled upon on it one afternoon walking from one transect to another. This beautiful rounded huge cat skull just lying in the grass staring up at us –a rare and amazing site.
This paper focused on bones from large animals, but surely there are a lot of small animal bones out there too - rodents, bats, rabbits, etc. Do you think they would show a similar correlation over time between abundance in life and death? Or are the taphonomic effects too different between large and small animals to expect the same pattern?
JM: Stay tuned! I kept careful attention to the bones of the small mammals we found. My bone survey teams were amazingly good at finding bones of all shapes and sizes (from bison skulls to limb bones of squirrels). One of the challenges, unfortunately, is the lack of high-quality data on the living populations in Yellowstone. One thing I'll say at the moment, however, is that the record of small-bones is surprisingly rich and diverse on the Yellowstone landscapes.
I see that you used the open source stats program R to do your data analysis. Was this something you picked up just for your dissertation work? Why did you choose R over some of the other commercial packages that are out there?
JM: I was introduced to R during the early days of my graduate work. R is a very powerful statistics language, in part, because of the large community of scientists and academics that use R and contribute to its ever-expanding utility. Another reason I use R is that I can completely control all aspects of the analysis. In canned programs, much of the analysis sits under a black box and uncovering exactly how the data were analyzed can be very difficult. But most of all, R just fits how I do science.
Thank you for your time, Josh!
Miller, J. (2011). Ghosts of Yellowstone: Multi-Decadal Histories of Wildlife Populations Captured by Bones on a Modern Landscape PLoS ONE, 6 (3) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0018057
Note: I'm an academic editor at PLoS ONE, but had no role in the handling of this paper.